A full glossary of Project Management and Six Sigma Terms, Acronyms and Definitions
AC* – Actual Cost
Acceptance Criteria* – A set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are accepted
Accepted Deliverables* – Products, results, or capabilities produced by a project and validated by the project customer or sponsors as meeting their specified acceptance criteria
Accuracy* – Within the quality management system, accuracy is an assessment of correctness
Acquire Project Team* – The process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project activities.
Acquisition* – Obtaining human and material resources necessary to perform project activities. Acquisition implies a cost of resources, and is not necessarily financial
Activity* – A distinct, scheduled portion of work performed during the course of a project
Activity Attributes* – Multiple attributes associated with each schedule activity that can be included within the activity list. Activity attributes include activity codes, predecessor activities, successor activities, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, imposed dates, constraints, and assumptions
Activity Code* – One or more numerical or text values that identify characteristics of the work or in some way categorize the schedule activity that allows filtering and ordering of activities within reports
Activity Cost Estimates* – The projected cost of the schedule activity that includes the cost for all resources required to perform and complete the activity, including all cost types and cost components
Activity Duration* – The time in calendar units between the start and finish of a schedule activity. See also duration.
Activity Duration Estimates* – A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome for the duration of an activity.
Activity Identifier* – A short, unique numeric or text identification assigned to each schedule activity to differentiate that project activity from other activities. Typically unique within any one project schedule network diagram.
Activity List* – A documented tabulation of schedule activities that shows the activity description, activity identifier, and a sufficiently detailed scope of work description so project team members understand what work is to be performed.
Activity Network Diagrams* – See project schedule network diagram
Activity Resource Requirements* – The types and quantities of resources required for each activity in a work package.
Activity-on-Node (AON)* – See precedence diagramming method (PDM).
Actual Cost (AC)* – The realized cost incurred for the work performed on an activity during a specific time period
Actual Duration* – The time in calendar units between the actual start date of the schedule activity and either the data date of the project schedule if the schedule activity is in progress or the actual finish date if the schedule activity is complete.
ACWP* – Actual Cost of Work Performed
Adaptive Life Cycle* – A project life cycle, also known as change-driven or agile methods, that is intended to facilitate change and require a high degree of ongoing stakeholder involvement. Adaptive life cycles are also iterative and incremental, but differ in that iterations are very rapid (usually 2–4 weeks in length) and are fixed in time and resources.
Additional Quality Planning Tools* – A set of tools used to define the quality requirements and to plan effective quality management activities. They include, but are not limited to: brainstorming, force field analysis, nominal group techniques and quality management and control tools
Adjusting Leads and Lags* – A technique used to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alignment with plan during project execution
Advertising* – The process of calling public attention to a project or effort
Affinity Diagram* – A group creativity technique that allows large numbers of ideas to be classified into groups for review and analysis.
Agreements* – Any document or communication that defines the initial intentions of a project. This can take the form of a contract, memorandum of understanding (MOU), letters of agreement, verbal agreements, email, etc.
Alpha Risk – The maximum risk or probability of making a Type I Error. This probability is always greater than zero, and is usually established at 5%. The researcher makes the decisions to the greatest level of risk that is acceptable for a rejection of Ho.
Alpha Risk – the risk of rejecting the null when the researcher should have failed to reject the null hypothesis.
Alternative Analysis* – A technique used to evaluate identified options in order to select which options or approaches to use to execute and perform the work of the project
Alternative Hypothesis – A statement of change or difference. This statement is considered true if Ho is rejected.
Alternatives Generation* – A technique used to develop as many potential options as possible in order to identify different approaches to execute and perform the work of the project
Analogous Estimating* – A technique for estimating the duration or cost of an activity or a project using historical data from a similar activity or project
Analytical Techniques* – Various techniques used to evaluate, analyze, or forecast potential outcomes based on possible variations of project or environmental variables and their relationships with other variables
ANOVA – Analysis of variance
Application Area* – A category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product (i.e., by similar technologies or production methods) or the type of customer (i.e., internal versus external, government versus commercial) or industry sector (i.e., utilities, automotive, aerospace, information technologies, etc.). Application areas can overlap
Applying Leads and Lags* – A technique that is used to adjust the amount of time between predecessor and successor activities.
Apportioned Effort* – An activity where effort is allotted proportionately across certain discrete efforts and not divisible into discrete efforts. [Note: Apportioned effort is one of three earned value management (EVM) types of activities used to measure work performance.]
Approved Change Request* – A change request that has been processed through the integrated change control process and approved.
Assumption* – A factor in the planning process that is considered to be true, real, or certain, without proof or demonstration.
Assumptions Analysis* – A technique that explores the accuracy of assumptions and identifies risks to the project from inaccuracy, inconsistency, or incompleteness of assumptions
Attribute Sampling* – Method of measuring quality that consists of noting the presence (or absence) of some characteristic (attribute) in each of the units under consideration. After each unit is inspected, the decision is made to accept a lot, reject it, or inspect another unit
Attribute – A characteristic that may take on a discrete value that can be ordinal, nominal, or binary. Examples 0 or 1, yes / no, on / off.
Audit – To examine and check for compliance and adherence to standards or operating procedures.
Authority* – The right to apply project resources, expend funds, make decisions, or give approvals.
Average – For a data set, the average is the sum of all values divided by the total number or count of values (see also, Mean)
BAC* – Budget at Completion
Background Variables – Variables which are of no experimental interest and are not held constant. Their effects are often assumed insignificant or negligible and if not, they are randomized to ensure that confounding of the primary response does not occur.
Backlog* – A listing of product requirements and deliverables to be completed, written as stories, and prioritized by the business to manage and organize the project’s work.
Backward Pass * – A critical path method technique for calculating the late start and late finish dates by working backward through the schedule model from the project end date
Balanced Design – An experimental design where all treatment combinations have the same number of observations.
Bar Chart* – A graphic display of schedule-related information. In the typical bar chart, schedule activities or work breakdown structure components are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date-placed horizontal bars. See also Gantt chart
Bartlett’s Test – Test used to compare the variances among two or more normally distributed populations
Baseline – The current or most recent or relevant output response of a process or measurement. It’s the measurement that is used to indicate the starting point or what might be referred to as the before measurement when changes or improvements are implemented.
Basis of Estimates* – Supporting documentation outlining the details used in establishing project estimates such as assumptions, constraints, level of detail, ranges, and confidence levels.
Benchmarking* – Benchmarking is the comparison of actual or planned practices, such as processes and operations, to those of comparable organizations to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance
Beta Risk – The risk or probability of making a Type II Error. Beta risk is the risk of failing to reject the null when in fact you should have rejected it. In production terms beta risk is the risk of letting a bad product get through to your customer.
Bias – Accuracy, difference between average measurement and true value.
Bidder Conference* – The meetings with prospective sellers prior to the preparation of a bid or proposal to ensure all prospective vendors have a clear and common understanding of the procurement. Also known as contractor conferences, vendor conferences, or pre-bid conferences.
Black Belt – A Black Belt is an individual who has demonstrated mastery of Six Sigma and/or Lean Six Sigma principals and curriculum. Black Belts are typically leaders of projects, teams or programs that employ the use of Six Sigma, Lean and other quality management methods.
Blocking Variables – A relatively homogenous set of conditions within which different conditions of the primary variables are compared. Used to ensure that background variables do not contaminate the evaluation of primary variables.
Bottleneck – a location in the chain of a complete process where the flow of production slows downs and impedes the continuation of the process.
Bottom-Up Estimating* – A method of estimating project duration or cost by aggregating the estimates of the lower-level components of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
Boxplot – Graphical representation of a distribution of data. Boxplots display a vertical box which represents the middle 50% of the distributions data (bottom line of the box is the 25th percentile and the top line of the box is the 75th percentile.) A horizontal line through the box typically indicates median.
Brainstorming – The act or practice of generating a wide variety of ideas from all participating parties without criticism or judgment.
Brown – Forsythe or Levene’s Test A test used to compare the variances between two or more populations with any distributions
Budget* – The approved estimate for the project or any work breakdown structure component or any schedule activity.
Budget at Completion (BAC)* – The sum of all budgets established for the work to be performed
Buffer* – See reserve
Business Case* – A documented economic feasibility study used to establish validity of the benefits of a selected component lacking sufficient definition and that is used as a basis for the authorization of further project management activities.
Business Value* – A concept that is unique to each organization and includes tangible and intangible elements. Through the effective use of project, program, and portfolio management disciplines, organizations will possess the ability to employ reliable, established processes to meet enterprise objectives and obtain greater business value from their investments.
Buyer* – The acquirer of products, services, or results for an organization
Calibrate – To adjust the scale of a gauge or other measuring instrument by comparison with a standard instrument.
Cause and Effect Diagram* – A decomposition technique that helps trace an undesirable effect back to its root cause.
Cause and Effect Diagram – Also referred to as a Fishbone diagram or Ishikawa Diagram. It’s a technique useful in problem solving. Possible causes from such sources as materials, machines, methods, and personnel are identified as starting points.
CCB* – Change Control Board
Center Line – The line on a statistical process control chart that represents the process mean or grand mean.
Center Points – Points at the center value of all factor ranges.
Central Tendency – Typically used in reference to measures of central tendency which are measures that describe the central region of a distribution e.g. mean, median, mode.
Champion – A member of senior management who is responsible for the business aspects of the program.
Change Control* – A process whereby modifications to documents, deliverables, or baselines associated with the project are identified, documented, approved, or rejected
Change Control Board (CCB)* – A formally chartered group responsible for reviewing, evaluating, approving, delaying, or rejecting changes to the project, and for recording and communicating such decisions
Change Control System* – A set of procedures that describes how modifications to the project deliverables and documentation are managed and controlled
Change Control Tools* – Manual or automated tools to assist with change and/or configuration management. At a minimum, the tools should support the activities of the CCB
Change Log* – A comprehensive list of changes made during the project. This typically includes dates of the change and impacts in terms of time, cost, and risk
Change Request* – A formal proposal to modify any document, deliverable, or baseline
Characteristic – A definable or measurable feature of a process, product, or variable.
Charter* – See project charter
Checklist Analysis* – A technique for systematically reviewing materials using a list for accuracy and completeness
Checksheets* – A tally sheet that can be used as a checklist when gathering data
Chi Square Test – Test whether two factors are independent of each other. If there is a statistically significant relationship between the two factors.
Claim* – A request, demand, or assertion of rights by a seller against a buyer, or vice versa, for consideration, compensation, or payment under the terms of a legally binding contract, such as for a disputed change.
Claims Administration* – The process of processing, adjudicating, and communicating contract claims
Close Procurements* – The process of completing each project procurement.
Close Project or Phase* – The process of finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally complete a project or phase.
Closed Procurements* – Project contracts or other procurement agreements that have been formally acknowledged by the proper authorizing agent as being finalized and signed off.
Closing Process Group* – Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close a project or phase.
Code of Accounts* – A numbering system used to uniquely identify each component of the work breakdown structure (WBS).
Collect Requirements* – The process of determining, documenting, and managing stakeholder needs and requirements to meet project objectives
Colocation* – An organizational placement strategy where the project team members are physically located close to one another in order to improve communication, working relationships, and productivity.
Common Cause Variables – Variables which are of no experimental interest and are not held constant. Their effects are often assumed insignificant or negligible and if not, they are randomized to ensure that confounding of the primary response does not occur.
Common Cause – A source of variation which is typical of the process. An inherent natural source of variation.
Communication Constraints* – Restrictions on the content, timing, audience, or individual who will deliver a communication usually stemming from specific legislation or regulation, technology, or organizational policies
Communication Methods* – A systematic procedure, technique, or process used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Communication Models* – A description, analogy or schematic used to represent how the communication process will be performed for the project
Communication Requirements Analysis* – An analytical technique to determine the information needs of the project stakeholders through interviews, workshops, study of lessons learned from previous projects, etc.
Communication Technology* – Specific tools, systems, computer programs, etc., used to transfer information among project stakeholders.
Communications Management Plan* – A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how, when, and by whom information about the project will be administered and disseminated.
Compliance* – A general concept of conforming to a rule, standard, law, or requirement such that the assessment of compliance results in a binomial result stated as “compliant” or “noncompliant.”
Conduct Procurements* – The process of obtaining seller responses, selecting a seller, and awarding a contract.
Confidence Interval – Statisticians use a confidence interval to express the degree of uncertainty associated with with a sample
Confidence Level – A confidence level refers to the likelihood that the true population parameter lies within the range specified by the confidence interval . The confidence level is usually expressed as a percentage. Thus, a 95% confidence level implies that the probability that the true population parameter lies within the confidence interval is 0.95.
Configuration Management System* – A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a product, result, service, or component; control any changes to such characteristics; record and report each change and its implementation status; and support the audit of the products, results, or components to verify conformance to requirements. It includes the documentation, tracking systems, and defined approval levels necessary for authorizing and controlling changes
Conflict Management* – Handling, controlling, and guiding a conflictual situation to achieve a resolution
Conformance Work* – In the cost of quality framework, conformance work is done to compensate for imperfections that prevent organizations from completing planned activities correctly as essential first-time work. Conformance work consists of actions that are related to prevention and inspection.
Conformance.* – Within the quality management system, conformance is a general concept of delivering results that fall within the limits that define acceptable variation for a quality requirement.
Confounding – Confounding occurs when explanations of relationships between independent and dependent variables cannot be observed or measured.
Constraint* – A limiting factor that affects the execution of a project, program, portfolio, or process.
Context Diagrams* – A visual depiction of the product scope showing a business system (process, equipment, computer system, etc.), and how people and other systems (actors) interact with it.
Contingency* – An event or occurrence that could affect the execution of the project that may be accounted for with a reserve.
Contingency Allowance* – See contingency reserve
Contingency Reserve* – Budget within the cost baseline or performance measurement baseline that is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigating responses are developed
Contingent Response Strategies* – Responses provided which may be used in the event that a specific trigger occurs.
Continuous Random Variable – Continuous random variables can take on any value within a range of values.
Continuous Variable – If a variable can take on any value between two specified values, it is called a continuous variable; otherwise, it is called a discrete variable.
Contract* – A mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide the specified product or service or result and obligates the buyer to pay for it.
Contract Change Control System* – The system used to collect, track, adjudicate, and communicate changes to a contract.
Control* – Comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
Control Account* – A management control point where scope, budget, actual cost, and schedule are integrated and compared to earned value for performance measurement.
Control Chart* – A graphic display of process data over time and against established control limits, which has a centerline that assists in detecting a trend of plotted values toward either control limit.
Control Chart – Control charts are graphical tools to present and analyze the process performance in statistical process control. Control charts are used to detect special cause variation and determine whether the process is in statistical control (stable).
Control Communications* – The process of monitoring and controlling communications throughout the entire project life cycle to ensure the information needs of the project stakeholders are met.
Control Costs* – The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline
Control Limits* – The area composed of three standard deviations on either side of the centerline or mean of a normal distribution of data plotted on a control chart, which reflects the expected variation in the data. See also specification limits.
Control Procurements* – The process of managing procurement relationships, monitoring contract performance, and making changes and corrections as appropriate
Control Quality* – The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.
Control Risks* – The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process effectiveness throughout the project.
Control Schedule* – The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan
Control Scope* – The process of monitoring the status of the project and product scope and managing changes to the scope baseline.
Control Stakeholder Engagement* – The process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders
Controllable X – An input or independent variable that can be manipulated or changed in order to measure its effect on the response variable.
COQ* – Cost of Quality
Corrective Action – An action taken to set things right, make better, to correct an error.
Correlation – Correlation is a statistical technique that describes whether and how strongly two or more variables are related.
Cost Aggregation* – Summing the lower-level cost estimates associated with the various work packages for a given level within the project’s WBS or for a given cost control account.
Cost Baseline* – The approved version of the time-phased project budget, excluding any management reserves, which can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results.
Cost Management Plan* – A component of a project or program management plan that describes how costs will be planned, structured, and controlled
Cost of Quality (COQ) * – A method of determining the costs incurred to ensure quality. Prevention and appraisal costs (cost of conformance) include costs for quality planning, quality control (QC), and quality assurance to ensure compliance to requirements (i.e., training, QC systems, etc.). Failure costs (cost of nonconformance) include costs to rework products, components, or processes that are non-compliant, costs of warranty work and waste, and loss of reputation.
Cost Performance Index (CPI)* – A measure of the cost efficiency of budgeted resources expressed as the ratio of earned value to actual cost.
Cost Plus Award Fee Contract (CPAF). * – A category of contract that involves payments to the seller for all legitimate actual costs incurred for completed work, plus an award fee representing seller profit
Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract (CPFF) * – A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contract (CPIF)* – A type of cost-reimbursable contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the seller’s allowable costs (allowable costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.
Cost Variance (CV)* – The amount of budget deficit or surplus at a given point in time, expressed as the difference between the earned value and the actual cost.
Cost-Benefit Analysis* – A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs.
Cost-Reimbursable Contract* – A type of contract involving payment to the seller for the seller’s actual costs, plus a fee typically representing seller’s profit. Cost-reimbursable contracts often include incentive clauses where, if the seller meets or exceeds selected project objectives, such as schedule targets or total cost, then the seller receives from the buyer an incentive or bonus payment.
Cp – Cp is a process capability index. It measures the processes potential capability to meet twosided specifications. Cp doesn’t take process average into consideration and it measures within subgroup variation.
CPAF* – Cost Plus Award Fee
CPFF* – Cost Plus Fixed Fee
CPI* – Cost Performance Index
CPIF* – Cost Plus Incentive Fee
Cpk – Cpk is a process capability index. It measures the processes actual capability by taking both the variation and average of the process into consideration. Cpk considers withinsubgroup variation in its calculation.
Cpl – Cp lower spec limit
CPM* – Critical Path Methodology
Cpu – Cp upper spec limit
Crashing* – A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources.
Create WBS* – The process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components
Criteria* – Standards, rules, or tests on which a judgment or decision can be based or by which a product, service, result, or process can be evaluated
Critical Chain Method* – A schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties
Critical Path* – The sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the shortest possible duration
Critical Path Activity* – Any activity on the critical path in a project schedule
Critical Path Method (CPM)* – A method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model
Crossed Factors – Variables that can have more than one parent or belong to more than one hierarchy of variables above it.
Customer* – Customer is the person(s) or organization(s) that will pay for the project’s product, service, or result. Customers can be internal or external to the performing organization
Customer Satisfaction* – Within the quality management system, a state of fulfillment in which the needs of a customer are met or exceeded for the customer’s expected experiences as assessed by the customer at the moment of evaluation
CV* – Cost Variance
Cycle Time – The time required to complete one cycle of an operation. If cycle time for every operation in a complete process can be reduced to equal takt time, products can be made in singlepiece flow.
Data Date* – A point in time when the status of the project is recorded
Data Gathering and Representation Techniques* – Techniques used to collect, organize, and present data and information
Database – A large collection of records stored on a computer system from which specialized data may be extracted or organized as desired.
Decision Tree Analysis* – A diagramming and calculation technique for evaluating the implications of a chain of multiple options in the presence of uncertainty
Decomposition* – A technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts
Defect* – An imperfection or deficiency in a project component where that component does not meet its requirements or specifications and needs to be either repaired or replaced
Defect Repair* – An intentional activity to modify a nonconforming product or product component
Define Activities* – The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables
Define Scope* – The process of developing a detailed description of the project and product
Degrees of Freedom – The number of degrees of freedom generally refers to the number of independent observations in a sample minus the number of population parameters that must be estimated from sample data.
Deliverable* – Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project
Delphi Technique* – An information gathering technique used as a way to reach a consensus of experts on a subject. Experts on the subject participate in this technique anonymously. A facilitator uses a questionnaire to solicit ideas about the important project points related to the subject.The responses are summarized and are then recirculated to the experts for further comment. Consensus may be reached in a few rounds of this process. The Delphi technique helps reduce bias in the data and keeps any one person from having undue influence on the outcome
Dependency* – A dependency between two activities, or between an activity and a milestone
Dependency Determination* – A technique used to identify the type of dependency that is used to create the logical relationships between predecessor and successor activities
Dependent Variable – The dependent variable is the response or output variable. Dependent variables are the Y in the Y=f(x) transfer function.
Design of Experiments* – A statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production
Detailed Process Map – A graphical representation of the flow of a process (starting and ending points, action steps, decision points etc.). A detailed process map that contains multiple levels of similar but more information beneficial to improving the process.
Detectability – In reference to the FMEA, detectability is the likelihood that your controls will detect when the x fails or when the failure mode occurs.
Determine Budget* – The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline
Develop Project Charter* – The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities
Develop Project Management Plan* – The process of defining, preparing, and coordinating all subsidiary plans and integrating them into a comprehensive project management plan
Develop Project Team* – The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and overall team environment to enhance project performance
Develop Schedule* – The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model
Diagramming Techniques* – Approaches to presenting information with logical linkages that aid in understanding
Dictatorship* – A group decision-making technique in which one individual makes the decision for the group
Direct and Manage Project Work* – The process of leading and performing the work defined in the project management plan and implementing approved changes to achieve the project’s objectives
Discrete Effort* – An activity that can be planned and measured and that yields a specific output. [Note: Discrete effort is one of three earned value management (EVM) types of activities used to measure work performance]
Discrete Random Variable – If a variable can take on any value between two specified values, it is called a continuous random variable; otherwise it is called a discrete random variable.
Discrete Variable – If a variable can take on any value between two specified values, it is called a continuous variable; otherwise, it is called a discrete variable.
Discretionary Dependency* – A relationship that is established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired
Document Analysis* – An elicitation technique that analyzes existing documentation and identifies information relevant to the requirements
Documentation Reviews* – The process of gathering a corpus of information and reviewing it to determine accuracy and completeness
Dotplot – A statistical analysis method comprised of dots on a chart that has a vertical (y) and horizontal (x) axis. Dots are placed on the chart at the intersection of the x and y value. Dotplots can also be arranged with only one axis to form a type of Historgram.
DPU – Defects per unit. The count of defects divided by the number of units or products produced.
Duration (DU or DUR)* – The total number of work periods (not including holidays or other nonworking periods) required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. Contrast with effort
EAC* – Estimate at Completion
Early Finish Date (EF)* – In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints
Early Start Date (ES)* – In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the data date, and any schedule constraints
Earned Value (EV)* – The measure of work performed expressed in terms of the budget authorized for that work
Earned Value Management* – A methodology that combines scope, schedule, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress
EF* – Early Finish Date
Effect – The main effect of a factor in a twolevel factorial experiment is the mean difference in responses between the two levels of the factor, which is averaged over all levels of the other factors.
Effort* – The number of labor units required to complete a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component, often expressed in hours, days, or weeks
Emotional Intelligence* – The capability to identify, assess, and manage the personal emotions of oneself and other people, as well as the collective emotions of groups of people
EMV* – Expected Monetary Value
Enterprise Environmental Factors* – Conditions, not under the immediate control of the team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project, program, or portfolio
Error – Unexplained variation in a collection of observations.
ES* – Early Start Date
Estimate* – A quantitative assessment of the likely amount or outcome. Usually applied to project costs, resources, effort, and durations and is usually preceded by a modifier (ie, preliminary, conceptual, feasibility, order-of- magnitude, definitive) It should always include some indication of accuracy (eg, ± x percent). See also budget and cost
Estimate Activity Durations* – The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources
Estimate Activity Resources* – The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity
Estimate at Completion (EAC)* – The expected total cost of completing all work expressed as the sum of the actual cost to date and the estimate to complete
Estimate Costs* – The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project activities
Estimate to Complete (ETC)* – The expected cost to finish all the remaining project work
ETC* – Estimate To Complete
EV* – Earned Value
EVM* – Earned Value Management
Execute* – Directing, managing, performing, and accomplishing the project work; providing the deliverables; and providing work performance information
Executing Process Group* – Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications
Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Analysis* – A statistical technique that calculates the average outcome when the future includes scenarios that may or may not happen. A common use of this technique is within decision tree analysis
Experiment – A test under controlled conditions to determine the effects of independent variables on dependent variables. In an experiment, a researcher manipulates one or more variables, while holding all other variables constant. By observing how the manipulated variables affect a response variable, the researcher can test whether a causal relationship exists between the variables.
Experimental Error – Variation in observations made under identical test conditions. Also called residual error. The amount of variation which cannot be attributed to the variables included in the experiment. Common cause variation during the experiment.
Expert Judgment* – Judgment provided based upon expertise in an application area, knowledge area, discipline, industry, etc, as appropriate for the activity being performed. Such expertise may be provided by any group or person with specialized education, knowledge, skill, experience, or training
External Dependency* – A relationship between project activities and non-project activities
F – Test Test used to compare the variances between two normally distributed populations.
Facilitated Workshops* – An elicitation technique using focused sessions that bring key cross-functional stakeholders together to define product requirements
Factors – Independent variables, usually the x variables in an experiment. Factors may have several levels or settings. In DOE it is common for factors to have 2 levels.
Failure Cause – In FMEA, failure causes are the factors or variables that are thought to have influence such that they cause failures.
Failure Effect – In FMEA, failure effects are the results or effects of failures identified in through the use of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis.
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)* – Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. A detailed procedure that documents process steps and all the possible ways in which that process can potentially fail, the causes of those failures, the effects of failures and the ability to detect when or if the failures occur.
Failure Mode – A description of a nonconformance at a particular process step.
Fallback Plan* – Fallback plans include an alternative set of actions and tasks available in the event that the primary plan needs to be abandoned because of issues, risks, or other causes
Fast Tracking* – A schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration
Fee* – Represents profit as a component of compensation to a seller
FF* – Finish-to-Finish
FFP* – Firm Fixed Price Contract
Finish Date* – A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s completion. Usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, baseline, target, or current
Finish-to-Finish (FF)* – A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has finished
Finish-to-Start (FS)* – A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished
Firm-Fixed-Price Contract (FFP)* – A type of fixed price contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), regardless of the seller’s costs
Fishbone diagram* – See Cause and Effect Diagram
Fishbone – Also referred to as a cause and effect diagram or Ishikawa Diagram. It’s a technique useful in problem solving. Possible causes from such sources as materials, machines, methods, and personnel are identified as starting points.
Fixed Effect – An effect associated with an input variable that has a limited number of levels or in which only a limited number of levels are of interest to the experimenter.
Fixed Formula Method* – An earned value method for assigning a specified percentage of budget value for a work package to the start milestone of the work package with the remaining budget value percentage assigned when the work package is complete
Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contract (FPIF)* – A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the seller can earn an additional amount if the seller meets defined performance criteria
Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contract (FP-EPA)* – A fixed-price contract, but with a special provision allowing for predefined final adjustments to the contract price due to changed conditions, such as inflation changes, or cost increases (or decreases) for specific commodities
Fixed-Price Contract* – An agreement that sets the fee that will be paid for a defined scope of work regardless of the cost or effort to deliver it
Float* – Also called slack. See total float and free float
Flowchart* – The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system
FMEA – Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. A detailed procedure that documents process steps and all the possible ways in which that process can potentially fail, the causes of those failures, the effects of failures and the ability to detect when or if the failures occur.
Focus Groups* – An elicitation technique that brings together prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts to learn about their expectations and attitudes about a proposed product, service, or result
Forecast* – An estimate or prediction of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time of the forecast. The information is based on the project’s past performance and expected future performance, and includes information that could impact the project in the future, such as estimate at completion and estimate to complete
Forward Pass* – A critical path method technique for calculating the early start and early finish dates by working forward through the schedule model from the project start date or a given point in time
FP-EPA* – Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment
FPIF* – Fixed Price Incentive Fee
Free Float* – The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any successor or violating a schedule constraint
FS* – Finish to Start
FTY – First Time Yield. FTY is simply the number of good units produced divided by the number of total units going into the process.
Functional Manager* – Someone with management authority over an organizational unit within a functional organization. The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. Sometimes called a line manager
Functional Organization* – A hierarchical organization where each employee has one clear superior, and staff are grouped by areas of specialization and managed by a person with expertise in that area
Funding Limit Reconciliation* – The process of comparing the planned expenditure of project funds against any limits on the commitment of funds for the project to identify any variances between the funding limits and the planned expenditures
Gage R&R – Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility is a method of measurement systems analysis that determines the proportion of variation in a measurement system that is attributable to repeatability, reproducibility, part to part variation and/or the variation caused by the measurement device itself.
Gantt Chart* – A bar chart of schedule information where activities are listed on the vertical axis, dates are shown on the horizontal axis, and activity durations are shown as horizontal bars placed according to start and finish dates
Grade* – A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (eg, “hammer”) but do not share the same requirements for quality (eg, different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force)
Green Belts – A Green Belt is an individual who has demonstrated understanding of Six Sigma and/or Lean Six Sigma principals and curriculum at the Green Belt level. Green Belts are typically leaders of individual projects, members of Black Belt project teams or programs. Green Belts use Six Sigma and the DMAIC methodology in their daily work lives.
Ground Rules* – Expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members
Group Creativity Techniques* – Techniques that are used to generate ideas within a group of stakeholders
Group Decision-Making Techniques* – Techniques to assess multiple alternatives that will be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements
Guideline* – An official recommendation or advice that indicates policies, standards, or procedures for how something should be accomplished
Hammock Activity* – See Summary Activity
Hard Logic* – See Mandatory Dependency
Hidden Factory – Hidden activities or subprocesses that inefficiently exist within a process. Hidden factories are undesirable and need to be found and eliminated. They are usually work arounds that people have implemented over time.
Histogram – a graphical representation of the frequency distribution of data. Arranges data in bar charts according to its location and frequency. Used to quickly see the shape and variation (spread) of the data.
Historical Data – Data that has been gathered over a period of time and used or displayed in the present to learn and evaluate.
Historical Information* – Documents and data on prior projects including project files, records, correspondence, closed contracts, and closed projects
Homogeneity of Variance – A test used to determine if the variances of two or more samples are different.
Homoscedasticity – In statistics, a sequence or a vector of random variables is homoscedastic if all random variables in the sequence or vector have the same finite variance. This is also known as homogeneity of variance. The complementary notion is called heteroscedasticity.
House of Quality (HOQ) – A product planning matrix that is developed during a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) event and shows the relationship of customer requirements to the means of achieving these requirements.
Human Resource Management Plan* – A component of the project management plan that describes how the roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staff management will be addressed and structured
Idea/Mind Mapping* – Technique used to consolidate ideas created through individual brainstorming sessions into a single map to reflect commonality and differences in understanding and to generate new ideas
Identify Risks* – The process of determining which risks may affect the project and documenting their characteristics
Identify Stakeholders* – The process of identifying the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by a decision, activity, or outcome of the project; and analyzing and documenting relevant information regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence, and potential impact on project success
IFB* – Invitation for Bid
Imposed Date* – A fixed date imposed on a schedule activity or schedule milestone, usually in the form of a “start no earlier than” and “finish no later than” date
Incentive Fee* – A set of financial incentives related to cost, schedule, or technical performance of the seller
Incremental Life Cycle* – A project life cycle where the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while increments successively add to the functionality of the product
Independent Estimates* – A process of using a third party to obtain and analyze information to support prediction of cost, schedule, or other items
Independent Variable – The independent variable is the input variable. Independent variables are the x’s in the Y=f(x) transfer function.
Influence Diagram* – A graphical representation of situations showing causal influences, time ordering of events, and other relationships among variables and outcomes
Information Gathering Techniques* – Repeatable processes used to assemble and organize data across a spectrum of sources
Information Management Systems* – Facilities, processes, and procedures used to collect, store, and distribute information between producers and consumers of information in physical or electronic format
Initiating Process Group* – Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase
Input* – Any item, whether internal or external to the project that is required by a process before that process proceeds. May be an output from a predecessor process.
Input – Variables that go into a process to produce a product or output.
Inspection* – Examining or measuring to verify whether an activity, component, product, result, or service conforms to specified requirements
Inspections and Audits* – A process to observe performance of contracted work or a promised product against agreed-upon requirements
Instability * – Process data with either unnaturally large fluctuations, trends or shifts suggesting special cause conditions exist.
Instability – Process data with either unnaturally large fluctuations, trends or shifts suggesting special cause conditions exist.
Interaction – Occurs when the effect of one factor on a response depends on the level of another factor(s).
Interpersonal Skills* – Ability to establish and maintain relationships with other people
Interquartile Range – The range between the first and third quartiles of a ranked data set.
Interrelationship Digraphs* – A quality management planning tool, the interrelationship digraphs provide a process for creative problem-solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships
Interviews* – A formal or informal approach to elicit information from stakeholders by talking to them directly
Invitation for Bid (IFB)* – Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning
Issue* – A point or matter in question or in dispute, or a point or matter that is not settled and is under discussion or over which there are opposing views or disagreements
Issue Log* – A project document used to document and monitor elements under discussion or in dispute between project stakeholders
Iterative Life Cycle* – A project life cycle where the project scope is generally determined early in the project life cycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified as the project team’s understanding of the product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while increments successively add to the functionality of the product
Just in Time – A system for producing and delivering the right items at the right time in the right amounts. The key elements of just in time are flow, pull, standard work and takt time.
Kanban – A pull production scheduling system to determine when, what and how much to produce based on demand, reducing waste and increase speed of response to demand.
Kruskal Wallis Test – A one way analysis of variance hypothesis test to compare the medians among more than two groups.
Lack of Fit Error – Error that occurs when the analysis omits one or more important terms or factors from the process model.
Lag* – The amount of time whereby a successor activity is required to be delayed with respect to a predecessor activity
Late Finish Date (LF)* – In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can finish based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints
Late Start Date (LS)* – In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time when the uncompleted portions of a schedule activity can start based on the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any schedule constraints
LCL – Lower Control Limit is the lower bound of a statistical process control chart that is set by the specific calculation of that particular control chart. As a general rule, LCL’s will be approximated as 3 sigma below the center line.
Lead* – The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity
Lessons Learned* – The knowledge gained during a project which shows how project events were addressed or should be addressed in the future with the purpose of improving future performance
Lessons Learned Knowledge Base* – A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance
Level of Effort (LOE)* – An activity that does not produce definitive end products and is measured by the passage of time[Note: Level of effort is one of three earned valued management (EVM) types of activities used to measure work performance]
Leveling* – See Resource Leveling
LF* – Late Finish Date
Life Cycle* – See Project Life Cycle
Line Charts – Simple charts created with a line representing data used to track the performance over time. No relationships to process capability or control limits or input variables can be derived from simple line charts (see also Run Chart).
LOE* – Level of Effort
Log* – A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue, quality control, action, or defect
Logical Relationship* – A dependency between two activities, or between an activity and a milestone
LS* – Late Start Date
LSL – Lower Specification Limits are not to be confused with Lower Control Limits. LSL’s are the lower bounds of a customer’s specification. LSL’s are set by the quantifiable demands of a customer.
Majority* – Support from more than 50 percent of the members of the group
Make-or-Buy Analysis* – The process of gathering and organizing data about product requirements and analyzing them against available alternatives including the purchase or internal manufacture of the product
Make-or-Buy Decisions* – Decisions made regarding the external purchase or internal manufacture of a product
Manage Communications* – The process of creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving, and the ultimate disposition of project information in accordance with the communications management plan
Manage Project Team* – The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance
Manage Stakeholder Engagement* – The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs/expectations, address issues as they occur, and foster appropriate stakeholder engagement in project activities throughout the project life cycle
Management Reserve* – An amount of the project budget withheld for management control purposes. These are budgets reserved for unforeseen work that is within scope of the project. The management reserve is not included in the performance measurement baseline (PMB)
Management Skills* – The ability to plan, organize, direct, and control individuals or groups of people to achieve specific goals
Mandatory Dependency* – A relationship that is contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work
Mann-Whitney Test – Compares the medians of two populations which are not normally distributed
Market Research* – The process of gathering information at conferences, online reviews, and a variety of sources to identify market capabilities
Master Black Belt – A Master Black Belt is an individual who has demonstrated the highest degree of mastery of Six Sigma and/or Lean Six Sigma principals and curriculum. Master Black Belts are typically program leaders, deployment leaders, executives or other high ranking officials of Lean Six Sigma programs or quality management programs.
Master Schedule* – A summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones. See also Milestone Schedule
Material* – The aggregate of things used by an organization in any undertaking, such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machinery, gear, and supplies
Matrix Diagrams* – A quality management and control tool used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix. The matrix diagram seeks to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix
Matrix Organization* – Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project
Mean – The arithmetic mean is the sum of all data points divided by the total number of data points (see also, Average).
Measurement Error – Measurement error is the difference between an observed value of quantity and its true value. In statistics, an error is not a mistake. Variability is an inherent part of things being measured and of the measurement process.
Measures of Scale – Quantifiable techniques used to understand variability. Common measures of scale are Range, Variance and Standard Deviation
Median – The median is the middle value of the data set in numeric order. It separates a finite set of data into two even parts, one with values higher that the median and the other with values lower than the median.
Methodology* – A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline
Metric – An analytical measurement intended to quantify the state of a system. For example ‘population density’ is one metric which may be used to describe a city.
Milestone* – A significant point or event in a project, program, or portfolio
Milestone List* – A list identifying all project milestones and normally indicates whether the milestone is mandatory or optional
Milestone Schedule* – A summary-level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestones. See also Master Schedule
Mode – The mode is the most common or frequently observed value in a sample or population.
Monitor* – Collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information
Monitor and Control Project Work* – The process of tracking, reviewing, and reporting the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan
Monitoring and Controlling Process Group* – Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes
Monte Carlo Simulation* – A process which generates hundreds or thousands of probable performance outcomes based on probability distributions for cost and schedule on individual tasks. The outcomes are then used to generate a probability distribution for the project as a whole
Moods Median – Compares the medians of two or more populations. It is an alternative to KruskalWallis
Most Likely Duration* – An estimate of the most probable activity duration that takes into account all of the known variables that could affect performance
MSA – Measurement Systems Analysis is the practice of validating the accuracy, stability or bias of a measurement system and/or device.
Muda – A Japanese word that means ‘waste’. It refers to any activity that consumes resources but creates no value.
Multicollinearity – When two or more independent variables in a multiple regression model are correlated with each other.
Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis* – This technique utilizes a decision matrix to provide a systematic analytical approach for establishing criteria, such as risk levels, uncertainty, and valuation, to evaluate and rank many ideas
Multiple Linear Regression – Has two or more predictors
Near-Critical Activity* – A schedule activity that has low total float. The concept of near-critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity or schedule network path. The limit below which total float is considered near critical is subject to expert judgment and varies from project to project
Negotiated Settlements* – The process of reaching final equitable settlement of all outstanding issues, claims, and disputes through negotiation
Negotiation* – The process and activities to resolving disputes through consultations between involved parties
Nested Factors – A factor ‘A’ is nested within another factor ‘B’ if the levels or values of ‘A’ are different for every level or value of ‘B’. Nested factors or effects have a hierarchical relationship.
Network* – See project schedule Network Diagram
Network Analysis* – See Schedule Network Analysis
Network Logic* – The collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram
Network Path* – Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram
Networking* – Establishing connections and relationships with other people from the same or other organizations
Node* – One of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines
Nominal Data – Data arranged in unordered categories which indicate membership or nonmembership with no implication of quantity, i.e. part numbers, colors, states etc.
Nominal Group Technique* – A technique that enhances brainstorming with a voting process used to rank the most useful ideas for further brainstorming or for prioritization
Non Value Added – Non Value Added (NVA), something a customer does not value.
Nonconformance Work* – In the cost of quality framework, nonconformance work is done to deal with the consequences of errors and failures in doing activities correctly on the first attempt. In efficient quality management systems, the amount of nonconformance work will approach zero
Nonconforming Unit – A unit which does not conform to one or more specifications, standards, and/or requirements.
Nonconformity – A condition within a unit which does not conform to some specific specification, standard, and/or requirement; often referred to as a defect; any given nonconforming unit can have the potential for more than one nonconformity. Nonconformities do not necessarily render a unit fully defective.
Non-Value Added (NVA)* – Something a customer does not value.
Normal Distribution – A continuous, symmetrical density function characterized by a bellshaped curve, e.g., distribution of sampling averages. With normal distributions mean=median=mode.
NP Chart – A type of control chart that plots the number of defectives per sub group.
Null Hypothesis – A statement of no change or no difference. The null hypothesis statement is assumed true until sufficient evidence is presented to reject it.
Objective* – Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed
OBS* – Organizational Breakdown Structure
Observations* – A technique that provides a direct way of viewing individuals in their environment performing their jobs or tasks and carrying out processes
Occurrence – In an FMEA, occurrence is a relative and subjective measure of the frequency of a failure event.
One Piece Flow – The opposite of batch production. Instead of building many products and then holding them in queue for the next step in the process, products go through each step in the process one at a time, without interruption. It improves quality and lowers costs.
One Sample Proportion – A hypothesis test to compare the proportion of one certain outcome occurring in a population following the binomial distribution with a specified proportion.
One Sample Sign – Compares the median of a population with a specific value.
One Sample Wilcoxon Test – A hypothesis test to compare the median of one population with a specified value. It is an alternative test of one sample ttest when the distribution of the data is non
Operational Definition – A definition that has meaning only as it applies to a particular operation or application.
Opportunity* – A risk that would have a positive effect on one or more project objectives
Optimistic Duration* – An estimate of the shortest activity duration that takes into account all of the known variables that could affect performance
Ordinal Data – Data arranged in ordered categories (ranking) with no information about distance between each category, i.e., rank ordering of several measurements of an output parameter.
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)* – A hierarchical representation of the project organization that illustrates the relationship between project activities and the organizational units that will perform those activities
Organizational Process Assets* – Plans, processes, policies, procedures, and knowledge bases that are specific to and used by the performing organization
Organizational Project Management Maturity* – The level of an organization’s ability to deliver the desired strategic outcomes in a predictable, controllable, and reliable manner
Orthogonality – Two vectors of the same length are orthogonal if the sum of the products of their corresponding elements is 0.
Outlier – A data point that does not fit a population or sample. Outliers are erroneous readings or data points that are not representative of the sample or population they are being compared with.
Output – An output is a response or result
P Chart – A control chart used to plot percent defectives of samples over time. Samples do not need to have equal subgroup sizes.
Parameter – A parameter is used to identify a characteristic, a feature, a measurable factor that can help in defining a particular system. It is an important element to take into consideration for the evaluation or for the comprehension of an event, a project or any situation.
Parametric Estimating* – An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters
Pareto Chart – Bar chart in which the relative importance or frequency of problems or possible causes of a problem are displayed in descending order. Pareto charts display total defects, cumulative defects, defects by category and cumulative defect percentages.
Pareto Diagram* – A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause
Path Convergence* – A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one predecessor
Path Divergence* – A relationship in which a schedule activity has more than one successor
Payment Systems* – The system used to provide and track supplier’s invoices and payments for services and products
PDM* – Precedence Diagramming Method
Percent Complete* – An estimate expressed as a percent of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component
Perform Integrated Change Control* – The process of reviewing all change requests; approving changes and managing changes to deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and the project management plan; and communicating their disposition
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis* – The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact
Perform Quality Assurance* – The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis* – The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives
Performance Measurement Baseline* – An approved, integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. The PMB includes contingency reserve, but excludes management reserve
Performance Reporting* – See Work Performance Reports
Performance Reports* – See Work Performance Reports
Performance Reviews* – A technique that is used to measure, compare, and analyze actual performance of work in progress on the project against the baseline
Performing Organization* – An enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the project or program
Pessimistic Duration* – Estimate of the longest activity duration that takes into account all of the known variables that could affect performance
Phase* – See Project Phase
Phase Gate* – A review at the end of a phase in which a decision is made to continue to the next phase, to continue with modification, or to end a project or program
Plan Communications Management* – The process of developing an appropriate approach and plan for project communications based on stakeholder’s information needs and requirements and available organizational assets
Plan Cost Management* – The process that establishes the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs
Plan Human Resource Management* – The process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, required skills, reporting relationships, and creating a staffing management plan
Plan Procurement Management* – The process of documenting project procurement decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers
Plan Quality Management* – The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements and/or standards
Plan Risk Management* – The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project
Plan Risk Responses* – The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives
Plan Schedule Management* – The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule
Plan Scope Management* – The process of creating a scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, validated, and controlled
Plan Stakeholder Management* – The process of developing appropriate management strategies to effectively engage stakeholders throughout the project life cycle, based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact on project success
Planned Value (PV)* – The authorized budget assigned to scheduled work
Planning Package* – A work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities. See also Control Account
Planning Process Group* – Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve
Plurality* – Decisions made by the largest block in a group, even if a majority is not achieved
PMBOK* – Project Management Body of Knowledge
Poka Yoke – A mistakeproofing device, method or procedure that prevents a defect from passing on to the next operation or process.
Policy* – A structured pattern of actions adopted by an organization such that the organization’s policy can be explained as a set of basic principles that govern the organization’s conduct
Population – A set of entities concerning which statistical inferences are to be drawn, often based on a sample taken from that population. Populations are considered the entire set or universe of entities.
Portfolio* – Projects, programs, subportfolios, and operations managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives
Portfolio Management* – The centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives
Power – The ability of a statistical test to detect a real difference when there really is one, or the probability of being correct in rejecting the null hypothesis. Commonly used to determine if sample sizes are sufficient to detect a difference in treatments, if one exists.
Pp – Pp is a process capability index. It measures the processes potential capability to meet twosided specifications. Pp doesn’t take process average into consideration and it measures overall or total variation.
Ppk – Similar to Cpk, Ppk measures the process capability by taking both the variation and the average of the process into consideration. Ppk uses total standard deviation in its calculation.
PPM – Parts per Million
Practice* – A specific type of professional or management activity that contributes to the execution of a process and that may employ one or more techniques and tools
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)* – A technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed
Precedence Relationship* – The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably, regardless of the diagramming method used. See also logical relationship
Precision* – Within the quality management system, precision is a measure of exactness
Predecessor Activity* – An activity that logically comes before a dependent activity in a schedule
Predictive Life Cycle* – A form of project life cycle in which the project scope, and the time and cost required to deliver that scope, are determined as early in the life cycle as possible
Preferential Logic* – See Discretionary Dependency
Preferred Logic* – See Discretionary Dependency
Prevention – The practice of eliminating unwanted failures or variation. Predicting a future condition and applying corrective action before the predicted event occurs.
Preventive Action* – An intentional activity that ensures the future performance of the project work is aligned with the project management plan
Primary Metric – The critical measure of process. The ‘Y’ in the Y=f(x) equation. Primary metrics are the single most important measures of processes or projects.
Prioritization Matrices* – A quality management planning tool used to identify key issues and evaluate suitable alternatives to define a set of implementation priorities
Probability and Impact Matrix* – A grid for mapping the probability of each risk occurrence and its impact on project objectives if that risk occurs
Probability Distribution – (or Distribution) describes the range of possible events and the possibility of each event occurring. In statistical terms, distribution is the probability of each possible value of a random variable when the variable is discrete, or the probability of a value falling in a specific interval when the variable is continuous.
Procedure* – An established method of accomplishing a consistent performance or result, a procedure typically can be described as the sequence of steps that will be used to execute a process
Process* – A systematic series of activities directed towards causing an end result such that one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs
Process Analysis* – A process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements
Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC)* – The PDPC is used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal
Process Improvement Plan* – A subsidiary plan of the project management plan. It details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities that enhance their value
Process Map – A graphical representation of the flow of a process (starting and ending points, action steps, decision points etc.).
Process Spread – The range of values which a given process characteristic display. This particular term most often applies to the range but may also encompass the variance. The spread may be based on a set of data collected at a specific point in time or may reflect the variability across a given amount of time.
Procurement Audits* – The review of contracts and contracting processes for completeness, accuracy, and effectiveness
Procurement Documents* – The documents utilized in bid and proposal activities, which include the buyer’s Invitation for Bid, Invitation for Negotiations, Request for Information, Request for Quotation, Request for Proposal, and seller’s responses
Procurement Management Plan* – A component of the project or program management plan that describes how a project team will acquire goods and services from outside the performing organization
Procurement Performance Reviews* – A structured review of the seller’s progress to deliver project scope and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract
Procurement Statement of Work* – Describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow prospective sellers to determine if they are capable of providing the products, services, or results
Product* – An artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end item in itself or a component item. Additional words for products are material and goods. Contrast with result. See also deliverable.
Product Analysis* – For projects that have a product as a deliverable, it is a tool to define scope that generally means asking questions about a product and forming answers to describe the use, characteristics, and other the relevant aspects of what is going to be manufactured
Product Life Cycle* – The series of phases that represent the evolution of a product, from concept through delivery, growth, maturity, and to retirement
Product Scope* – The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result
Product Scope Description* – The documented narrative description of the product scope
Program* – A group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)* – A technique for estimating that applies a weighted average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates
Program Management* – The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to a program to meet the program requirements and to obtain benefits and control not available by managing projects individually
Progressive Elaboration* – The iterative process of increasing the level of detail in a project management plan as greater amounts of information and more accurate estimates become available
Project* – A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result
Project Calendar* – A calendar that identifies working days and shifts that are available for scheduled activities
Project Charter* – A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities
Project Cost Management* – Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget
Project Funding Requirements* – Forecast project costs to be paid that are derived from the cost baseline for total or periodic requirements, including projected expenditures plus anticipated liabilities
Project Governance* – The alignment of project objectives with the strategy of the larger organization by the project sponsor and project team. A project’s governance is defined by and is required to fit within the larger context of the program or organization sponsoring it, but is separate from organizational governance
Project Human Resource Management* – Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize, manage, and lead the project team
Project Initiation* – Launching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project
Project Management Information System* – An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems
Project Management Knowledge Area* – An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques
Project Management Plan* – The document that describes how the project will be executed monitored, and controlled
Project Management Process Group* – A logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups include initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes, and closing processes. Project Management Process Groups are not project phases
Project Management Staff* – The members of the project team who perform project management activities such as schedule, communications, risk management, etc
Project Management System* – The aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project
Project Management Team* – The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members
Project Manager (PM)* – The person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives
Project Organization Chart* – A document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project
Project Phase* – A collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables
Project Procurement Management* – Project Procurement Management includes the processes necessary to purchase or acquire products, services, or results needed from outside the project team
Project Quality Management* – Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken
Project Risk Management* – Project Risk Management includes the processes of conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, response planning, and controlling risk on a project
Project Schedule* – An output of a schedule model that presents linked activities with planned dates, durations, milestones, and resources
Project Schedule Network Diagram* – A graphical representation of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities
Project Scope* – The work performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions
Project Scope Management* – Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully
Project Scope Statement* – The description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints
Project Stakeholder Management* – Project Stakeholder Management includes the processes required to identify the people, groups, or organizations that could impact or be impacted by the project, to analyze stakeholder expectations and their impact on the project, and to develop appropriate management strategies for effectively engaging stakeholders in project decisions and execution
Project Statement of Work* – See Statement of Work
Project Team* – A set of individuals who support the project manager in performing the work of the project to achieve its objectives
Project Team Directory* – A documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information
Project Time Management* – Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project
Projectized Organization* – Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities, apply resources, and direct the work of persons assigned to the project
Proposal Evaluation Techniques* – The process of reviewing proposals provided by suppliers to support contract award decisions
Prototypes* – A method of obtaining early feedback on requirements by providing a working model of the expected product before actually building it
PV* – Planned Value
p-value – The probability of being wrong if the null hypothesis was rejected when in fact it was true. The probability of obtaining a more extreme value of the test statistic by chance if the null hypothesis was true.
PVR – Process Variability Reduction is an approach to improving the process by removing variability. Variability can be anything from doing the same task two different ways to a piece of equipment that doesn’t always run right. The goal of pvr is to remove variability from the process and end up with a more dependable, predictable and consistent process.
QFD* – Quality Function Deployment
Quality* – The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements
Quality Audits* – A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures
Quality Checklists* – A structured tool used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed
Quality Control Measurements* – The documented results of control quality activities
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)* – A facilitated workshop technique that helps to determine critical characteristics for new product development
Quality Management and Control Tools* – They are a type of quality planning tools used to link and sequence the activities identified
Quality Management Plan* – A component of the project or program management plan that describes how an organization’s quality policies will be implemented
Quality Management System* – The organizational framework whose structure provides the policies, processes, procedures, and resources required to implement the quality management plan. The typical project quality management plan should be compatible to the organization’s quality management system
Quality Metrics* – A description of a project or product attribute and how to measure it
Quality Policy* – A policy specific to the Project Quality Management Knowledge Area, it establishes the basic principles that should govern the organization’s actions as it implements its system for quality management
Quality Requirement* – A condition or capability that will be used to assess conformance by validating the acceptability of an attribute for the quality of a result
Quantitative Risk Analysis and Modeling Techniques* – Commonly used techniques for both event-oriented and project-oriented analysis approaches
Quartile – The first quartile of a data series is the number such that one quarter of the numbers in the series are below it, the third quartile number such that three quarters of the numbers are below it, the second quartile is the same as the median.
Questionnaires and Surveys* – Written sets of questions designed to quickly accumulate information from a large number of respondents
RACI* – A common type of responsibility assignment matrix that uses responsible, accountable, consult, and inform statuses to define the involvement of stakeholders in project activities
RAM* – Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Random – Selecting a sample so each item in the population has an equal chance of being selected, lack of predictability, without pattern.
Random Cause – See Common Cause
Random Effect – An effect associated with input variables chosen at random from a population having a large or infinite number of possible values.
Random Effects Model – Experimental treatments are a random sample from a larger population of treatments. Conclusions can be extended to the population. Inferences are not restricted to the experimental levels.
Random Error – Error that occurs due to natural variation in the process. Random error is typically
Random Sample – One or more samples randomly selected from a population.
Random Variable – A variable which can assume any value from a set of possible values.
Random Variations – Variations in data which result from causes which cannot be pinpointed or controlled.
Randomization – A schedule for allocating treatment material and for conducting treatment combinations in a DOE such that the conditions in one run neither depend on the conditions of the previous run nor predict the conditions in the subsequent runs. Randomization is necessary for conclusions drawn from the experiment to be correct, unambiguous and defensible.
Randomness – A condition in which any individual event in a set of events has the same mathematical probability of occurring as all other events within the specified set. i.e. Individual events are not predictable even though they may collectively belong to a definable distribution.
Range – The difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of values.
Rank – Ordinal values assigned to items in a sample to determine their relative occurrence in a set of values.
Ratio Scale – Most measurements in the physical sciences and engineering is done on ratio scales. Mass, length, time, plane angle, energy and electric charge are examples of physical Measures that are ratio scales. The scale type takes its name from the fact that measurement is the estimation of the ratio between a magnitude of a continuous quantity and a unit magnitude of the same kind
RBS* – Risk Breakdown Structure
Records Management System* – A specific set of processes, related control functions, and tools that are consolidated and combined to record and retain information about the project
Regression Analysis* – An analytic technique where a series of input variables are examined in relation to their corresponding output results in order to develop a mathematical or statistical relationship
Regression Equation – A prediction equation, not necessarily linear, that allows the values of inputs to be used to predict a corresponding output.
Regulation* – Requirements imposed by a governmental body. These requirements can establish product, process, or service characteristics, including applicable administrative provisions that have government-mandated compliance
Repeatability – Variation in measurements obtained with one gauging instrument when used several times by the same appraiser, this includes the ability of an automated tester (no real operator involvement) to repeat itself.
Replication – Performing the same treatment combination more than once.
Reporting Systems* – Facilities, processes, and procedures used to generate or consolidate reports from one or more information management systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders
Representative Sample – A sample, which accurately reflects a specific characteristic or set of characteristics within a population.
Reproducibility – Variation in the average of the measurements made by different appraisers using the same measurement device, this can also include the agreement between several different measuring devices (not only appraisers).
Request for Information (RFI)* – A type of procurement document whereby the buyer requests a potential seller to provide various pieces of information related to a product or service or seller capability
Request for Proposal (RFP)* – A type of procurement document used to request proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning
Request for Quotation (RFQ)* – A type of procurement document used to request price quotations from prospective sellers of common or standard products or services. Sometimes used in place of request for proposal and, in some application areas, it may have a narrower or more specific meaning
Requested Change* – A formally documented change request that is submitted for approval to the integrated change control process
Requirement* – A condition or capability that is required to be present in a product, service, or result to satisfy a contract or other formally imposed specification
Requirements Documentation* – A description of how individual requirements meet the business need for the project
Requirements Management Plan* – A component of the project or program management plan that describes how requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed
Requirements Traceability Matrix* – A grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them
Reserve* – A provision in the project management plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk Often used with a modifier (eg, management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated
Reserve Analysis* – An analytical technique to determine the essential features and relationships of components in the project management plan to establish a reserve for the schedule duration, budget, estimated cost, or funds for a project
Residual Risk* – A risk that remains after risk responses have been implemented
Resolution – The measure or degree of confounding. Higher resolution means less confounding or merely confounding main effects with higher order interactions.
Resource* – Skilled human resources (specific disciplines either individually or in crews or teams), equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material, budgets, or funds
Resource Breakdown Structure* – A hierarchical representation of resources by category and type
Resource Calendar* – A calendar that identifies the working days and shifts on which each specific resource is available
Resource Histogram* – A bar chart showing the amount of time that a resource is scheduled to work over a series of time periods. Resource availability may be depicted as a line for comparison purposes. Contrasting bars may show actual amounts of resources used as the project progresses.
Resource Leveling* – A technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply
Resource Optimization Techniques* – A technique that is used to adjust the start and finish dates of activities that adjust planned resource use to be equal to or less than resource availability
Resource Smoothing* – A technique which adjusts the activities of a schedule model such that the requirement for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits
Response Surface Designs – A DOE that fully explores the process window and models the responses.
Responsibility* – An assignment that can be delegated within a project management plan such that the assigned resource incurs a duty to perform the requirements of the assignment
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)* – A grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package
Result* – An output from performing project management processes and activities Results include outcomes (eg, integrated systems, revised process, restructured organization, tests, trained personnel, etc) and documents (eg, policies, plans, studies, procedures, specifications, reports, etc)
Rework* – Action taken to bring a defective or nonconforming component into compliance with requirements or specifications
RFI* – Request for Information
RFP* – Request for Proposal
RFQ* – Request for Quotation
Risk* – An uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives
Risk Acceptance* – A risk response strategy whereby the project team decides to acknowledge the risk and not take any action unless the risk occurs
Risk Appetite* – The degree of uncertainty an entity is willing to take on, in anticipation of a reward
Risk Audits* – Examination and documentation of the effectiveness of risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, as well as the effectiveness of the risk management process
Risk Avoidance* – A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to eliminate the threat or protect the project from its impact
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS)* – A hierarchical representation of risks according to their risk categories
Risk Categorization* – Organization by sources of risk (eg, using the RBS), the area of the project affected (eg, using the WBS), or other useful category (eg, project phase) to determine the areas of the project most exposed to the effects of uncertainty
Risk Category* – A group of potential causes of risk
Risk Data Quality Assessment* – Technique to evaluate the degree to which the data about risks is useful for risk management
Risk Management Plan* – A component of the project, program, or portfolio management plan that describes how risk management activities will be structured and performed
Risk Mitigation* – A risk response strategy whereby the project team acts to reduce the probability of occurrence or impact of a risk
Risk Priority Number – RPN equals severity value multiplied by the occurrence value multiplied by the detection value. RPN is used to prioritize recommended actions. Special consideration should be given to high severity ratings even if occurrence and detection are low.
Risk Reassessment* – Risk reassessment is the identification of new risks, reassessment of current risks, and the closing of risks that are outdated
Risk Register* – A document in which the results of risk analysis and risk response planning are recorded
Risk Threshold* – Measure of the level of uncertainty or the level of impact at which a stakeholder may have a specific interest. Below that risk threshold, the organization will accept the risk. Above that risk threshold, the organization will not tolerate the risk
Risk Tolerance* – The degree, amount, or volume of risk that an organization or individual will withstand
Risk Transference* – A risk response strategy whereby the project team shifts the impact of a threat to a third party, together with ownership of the response
Risk Urgency Assessment* – Review and determination of the timing of actions that may need to occur sooner than other risk items
Role* – A defined function to be performed by a project team member, such as testing, filing, inspecting, or coding
Rolling Wave Planning* – An iterative planning technique in which the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail, while the work in the future is planned at a higher level
Root Cause Analysis – A systematic approach to finding the deeprooted causes of a resulting output that is in need of improvement.
RPN – Risk Priority Number equals severity value multiplied by the occurrence value multiplied by the detection value. RPN is used to prioritize recommended actions. Special consideration should be given to high severity ratings even if occurrence and detection are low.
RTY – Rolled Throughput Yield is the probability that a unit will make it through all process steps defect free.
Run Chart – Run Charts are basic data charts created with a line representing data used to track the performance over time. No relationships to process capability or control limits or input variables can be derived from simple run charts (see also Line Chart).
Sample – One or more observations drawn from a larger collection of observations or universe (population).
Scatter Diagram* – A correlation chart that uses a regression line to explain or to predict how the change in an independent variable will change a dependent variable
Scatter Plot – Is a type of diagram to present the relationship between two variables of a data set. On the scatter plot, a single observation is presented by a data point with its horizontal position equal to the value of one variable and its vertical position equal to the value of the other variable
Schedule* – See Project Schedule and see also Schedule Model
Schedule Baseline* – The approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison to actual results
Schedule Compression* – Techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope
Schedule Data* – The collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule
Schedule Forecasts* – Estimates or predictions of conditions and events in the project’s future based on information and knowledge available at the time the schedule is calculated
Schedule Management Plan* – A component of the project management plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and controlling the schedule
Schedule Model* – A representation of the plan for executing the project’s activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce a project schedule along with other scheduling artifacts
Schedule Network Analysis* – The technique of identifying early and late start dates, as well as early and late finish dates, for the uncompleted portions of project schedule activities. See also backward pass, critical path method, critical chain method, and resource leveling
Schedule Network Templates* – A set of activities and relationships that have been established that can be used repeatedly for a particular application area or an aspect of the project where a prescribed sequence is desired
Schedule Performance Index (SPI)* – A measure of schedule efficiency expressed as the ratio of earned value to planned value
Schedule Variance (SV)* – A measure of schedule performance expressed as the difference between the earned value and the planned value
Scheduling Tool* – A tool that provides schedule component names, definitions, structural relationships, and formats that support the application of a scheduling method
Scope* – The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided as a project. See also project scope
Scope Baseline* – The approved version of a scope statement, work breakdown structure (WBS), and its associated WBS dictionary, that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comparison
Scope Change* – Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires an adjustment to the project cost or schedule
Scope Creep* – The uncontrolled expansion to product or project scope without adjustments to time, cost, and resources
Scope Management Plan* – A component of the project or program management plan that describes how the scope will be defined, developed, monitored, controlled, and verified
Screening Designs – A DOE that identifies which of many factors have a significant effect on the response.
Secondary Metric – A measure of process output of secondary importance. Secondary measures are metrics needing to be maintained during project work to prevent process suboptimization or to prevent the adverse effect of changes made to improve the primary metric.
Secondary Risk* – A risk that arises as a direct result of implementing a risk response
Selected Sellers* – The sellers which have been selected to provide a contracted set of services or products
Seller* – A provider or supplier of products, services, or results to an organization
Seller Proposals* – Formal responses from sellers to a request for proposal or other procurement document specifying the price, commercial terms of sale, and technical specifications or capabilities the seller will do for the requesting organization that, if accepted, would bind the seller to perform the resulting agreement
Sensitivity Analysis* – A quantitative risk analysis and modeling technique used to help determine which risks have the most potential impact on the project. It examines the extent to which the uncertainty of each project element affects the objective being examined when all other uncertain elements are held at their baseline values. The typical display of results is in the form of a tornado diagram.
Sequence Activities* – The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities
Seven Basic Quality Tools* – A standard toolkit used by quality management professionals who are responsible for planning, monitoring, and controlling the issues related to quality in an organization
SF* – Start-to-Finish
Significant Difference – The term used to describe the results of a statistical hypothesis test where a difference is too large to be reasonably attributed to chance.
Simulation* – A simulation uses a project model that translates the uncertainties specified at a detailed level into their potential impact on objectives that are expressed at the level of the total project. Project simulations use computer models and estimates of risk, usually expressed as a probability distribution of possible costs or durations at a detailed work level, and are typically performed using Monte Carlo analysis
SMED – Single Minute Exchange of Dies. A series of techniques pioneered by Shigeo Shingo for changeovers of production machinery in less than ten minutes.
Soft Logic* – See Discretionary Dependency
SOP – Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) clearly define work instructions that are consistently applied to work operations.
Source Selection Criteria* – A set of attributes desired by the buyer which a seller is required to meet or exceed to be selected for a contract
SOW* – Statement of Work
Spaghetti Map – A map of the path taken by a specific product as it travels down the value stream in a massproduction organization, so
Special Cause – A source of variation which is nonrandom and outside of what is normally expected. A special cause is often signaled by a data point outside the upper or lower control limits, and/or a non
Specification* – A document that specifies, in a complete, precise, verifiable manner, the requirements, design, behavior, or other characteristics of a system, component, product, result, or service and the procedures for determining whether these provisions have been satisfied. Examples are: requirement specification, design specification, product specification, and test specification.
Specification Limits* – The area, on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart that meets the customer’s requirements for a product or service. This area may be greater than or less than the area defined by the control limits. See also control limits.
SPI* – Schedule Performance Index
Sponsor* – A person or group who provides resources and support for the project, program, or portfolio and is accountable for enabling success
Sponsoring Organization* – The entity responsible for providing the project’s sponsor and a conduit for project funding or other project resources
SS* – Start-to-Start
Stable Process – A process which is free of special causes, e.g., in statistical control.
Staffing Management Plan* – A component of the human resource plan that describes when and how project team members will be acquired and how long they will be needed
Stakeholder Analysis* – A technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project
Stakeholder Management Plan* – The stakeholder management plan is a subsidiary plan of the project management plan that defines the processes, procedures, tools, and techniques to effectively engage stakeholders in project decisions and execution based on the analysis of their needs, interests, and potential impact
Stakeholder Register* – A project document including the identification, assessment, and classification of project stakeholders
Stakeholder – An individual that has a vested interest in the performance or improvement of a process or project.
Standard* – A document that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context
Start Date* – A point in time associated with a schedule activity’s start, usually qualified by one of the following: actual, planned, estimated, scheduled, early, late, target, baseline, or current
Start-to-Finish (SF)* – A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot finish until a predecessor activity has started
Start-to-Start (SS)* – A logical relationship in which a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started
Statement of Work (SOW)* – A narrative description of products, services, or results to be delivered by the project
Statistical Control – A quantitative condition which describes a process that is free of special causes of variation. Such a condition is evidenced with the use of a control chart.
Statistical Sampling* – Choosing part of a population of interest for inspection
Subnetwork* – A subdivision (fragment) of a project schedule network diagram, usually representing a subproject or a work package. Often used to illustrate or study some potential or proposed schedule condition, such as changes in preferential schedule logic or project scope.
Subproject* – A smaller portion of the overall project created when a project is subdivided into more manageable components or pieces
Successor Activity* – A dependent activity that logically comes after another activity in a schedule
Summary Activity* – A group of related schedule activities aggregated and displayed as a single activity
SV* – Schedule Variance
SWOT* – Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats
SWOT Analysis* – Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization, project, or option
T&M* – Time and Material Contract
Tailor* – The act of carefully selecting process and related inputs and outputs contained within the PMBOK® Guide to determine a subset of specific processes that will be included within a project’s overall management approach
Takt Time – Available time divided by demand. It’s the tempo or pace required to exactly output demanded quantities given available production time.
Team Members* – See Project Team Members
Technique* – A defined systematic procedure employed by a human resource to perform an activity to produce a product or result or deliver a service, and that may employ one or more tools
Templates* – A partially complete document in a predefined format that provides a defined structure for collecting, organizing, and presenting information and data
Threat* – A risk that would have a negative effect on one or more project objectives
Three-Point Estimate* – A technique used to estimate cost or duration by applying an average of optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates when there is uncertainty with the individual activity estimates
Threshold* – A cost, time, quality, technical, or resource value used as a parameter, and which may be included in product specifications. Crossing the threshold should trigger some action, such as generating an exception report.
Time and Material Contract (T&M)* – A type of contract that is a hybrid contractual arrangement containing aspects of both cost-reimbursable and fixed-price contracts. Time and material contracts resemble cost-reimbursable type arrangements in that they have no definitive end, because the full value of the arrangement is not defined at the time of the award. Thus, time and material contracts can grow in contract value as if they were cost-reimbursable- type arrangements. Conversely, time and material arrangements can also resemble fixed-price arrangements. For example, the unit rates are preset by the buyer and seller, when both parties agree on the rates for the category of senior engineers
Time Series Plot – A display of measurement data on the yaxis versus time data on the x
Time-Scaled Schedule Network Diagram* – Any project schedule network diagram drawn in such a way that the positioning and length of the schedule activity represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes schedule network logic.
To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI)* – A measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal, expressed as the ratio of the cost to finish the outstanding work to the remaining budget
Tolerance* – The quantified description of acceptable variation for a quality requirement
Tool* – Something tangible, such as a template or software program, used in performing an activity to produce a product or result
Tornado Diagram* – A special type of bar chart used in sensitivity analysis for comparing the relative importance of the variables
Total Float* – The amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint
Total Productive Maintenance – Total productive maintenance is the effective management of business assets in order to produce the highest yield and utilization on a continuous basis. Elements include: maximize equipment effectiveness; establish a thorough system of pm for the equipment’s life span; it is implemented by various departments; involves every single employee from top management to workers on the floor; based on the promotion of pm through autonomous small group activities.
TPVR – Transactional process variability reduction or TPVR is an approach to reduce variation in our transactional processes in a way that dramatically reduces the variation in our transactional outputs. Transactional processes: customer service, job instructions, prepress, invoicing, shipping, etc. TPVR increases process stability, consistency, and quality.
Tree Diagram* – A systematic diagram of a decomposition hierarchy used to visualize as parent-to-child relationships a systematic set of rules
Trend Analysis* – An analytical technique that uses mathematical models to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. It is a method of determining the variance from a baseline of a budget, cost, schedule, or scope parameter by using prior progress reporting periods’ data and projecting how much that parameter’s variance from baseline might be at some future point in the project if no changes are made in executing the project.
Trigger Condition* – An event or situation that indicates that a risk is about to occur
Type I Error – The error in rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact it is true. Also the error in saying there is a difference when in fact there is no difference or declaring a defect when one does not exist.
Type II Error – The error in failing to reject the null hypothesis when in fact it was false. Also the error in saying there is not a difference when in fact there is one or allowing defects to pass through to customers.
UCL – Upper Control Limit is the upper bound of a statistical process control chart that is set by the specific calculation of that particular control chart. As a general rule, UCL’s will be approximated as 3 sigma above the center line.
Unanimity* – Agreement by everyone in the group on a single course of action
USL – Upper Specification Limits are not to be confused with Upper Control Limits. USL’s are the upper bounds of a customer’s specification. USL’s are set by the quantifiable demands of a customer.
VAC* – Variance at Completion
Validate Scope* – The process of formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables
Validation* – The assurance that a product, service, or system meets the needs of the customer and other identified stakeholders. It often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers. Contrast with verification.
Value Engineering* – An approach used to optimize project life cycle costs, save time, increase profits, improve quality, expand market share, solve problems, and/or use resources more effectively
Variance* – A quantifiable deviation, departure, or divergence away from a known baseline or expected value
Variance Analysis* – A technique for determining the cause and degree of difference between the baseline and actual performance
Variance at Completion (VAC)* – A projection of the amount of budget deficit or surplus, expressed as the difference between the budget at completion and the estimate at completion
Variation* – An actual condition that is different from the expected condition that is contained in the baseline plan
Velocity* – A measure of a team’s productivity rate at which the deliverables are produced, validated, and accepted within a predefined interval. Velocity is a capacity planning approach frequently used to forecast future project work.
Verification* – The evaluation of whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, requirement, specification, or imposed condition, It is often an internal process. Contrast with validation.
Verified Deliverables* – Completed project deliverables that have been checked and confirmed for correctness through the Control Quality process
VOC (Voice of the Customer) – Customer feedback both positive and negative including likes, dislikes, problems, and suggestions.
Voice of the Customer* – A planning technique used to provide products, services, and results that truly reflect customer requirements by translating those customer requirements into the appropriate technical requirements for each phase of project product development
WBS* – Work Breakdown Structure
WBS Dictionary* – A document that provides detailed deliverable, activity, and scheduling information about each component in the work breakdown structure
Weighted Milestone Method* – An earned value method that divides a work package into measurable segments, each ending with an observable milestone, and then assigns a weighted value to the achievement of each milestone
What-If Scenario Analysis* – The process of evaluating scenarios in order to predict their effect on project objectives
Work Authorization* – A permission and direction, typically written, to begin work on a specific schedule activity or work package or control account. It is a method for sanctioning project work to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence.
Work Authorization System* – A subsystem of the overall project management system. It is a collection of formal documented procedures that defines how project work will be authorized (committed) to ensure that the work is done by the identified organization, at the right time, and in the proper sequence.It includes the steps, documents, tracking system, and defined approval levels needed to issue work authorizations
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)* – A hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables
Work Breakdown Structure Component* – An entry in the work breakdown structure that can be at any level
Work Package* – The work defined at the lowest level of the work breakdown structure for which cost and duration can be estimated and managed
Work Performance Data* – The raw observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work
Work Performance Information* – The performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas
Work Performance Reports* – The physical or electronic representation of work performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate decisions, actions, or awareness
Workaround* – A response to a threat that has occurred, for which a prior response had not been planned or was not effective
XY Matrix – A simple spreadsheet used to relate and prioritize x’s to y’s through numerical ranking.
5 Whys – The practice of asking why 5 times whenever a problem is encountered, in order to identify the root cause of the problem so that effective countermeasures can be developed and implemented.
5s – Standards that make up the foundation that supports a clean and safe manufacturing environment. The 5s standards at are commonly known as sort, set in order, shine, standardize and sustain.
7 Deadly Muda – The original classification developed by Taiichi Ohno of the most common wastes in manufacturing. These are overproduction ahead of demand, waiting for the next processing step, unnecessary transport of materials, over processing of parts due to poor tool and product design, inventories more than the absolute minimum, unnecessary movement by employees during the course of their work and production of defective parts.
80/20 rule – Also known as the Pareto principle. 80% of the defects are derived from 20% of the problem. Named after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto who found in his studies that 80% of the land was owned by only 20% of the population.
* Definition taken from the Glossary of the Project Management Institute, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge,
(PMBOK®Guide) – Sixth Edition, Project Management Institute, Inc., 2017